Diaphragmatocele may be a part of the gastroesophageal reflux disease.
If it is large enough and part of or the whole stomach and/or other abdominal organs, like bowel or spleen enter thorax, it may cause severe problems like dysphagia, vomiting, thoracic pain and shortness of breath.
The most usual type we have to operate is the paraesophageal hernia.
Serious and life threatening complications, like stomach necrosis, are not rare and need an urgent and difficult operation.
It is not rare that a special mesh will be required to enforce narrowing the esophageal opening. It is usually followed by a fundoplication.